THE 5 DIMENSIONS OF PERSONALITY: (THE FIVE-FACTOR MODEL). THE CONCEPT OF PERSONALITY- DEFINITION: “Personality is that pattern of characteristic thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that distinguishes one a person from another and that persists over time” “It is the sum of biologically based and learned behavior which forms the person’s unique responses to
environmental stimuli”


The Big Five personality traits, also known as the five-factor model (FFM), is a model based on common language descriptors of personality (lexical hypothesis). These descriptors are grouped using a statistical technique called factor analysis (i.e. this model is not based on scientific experiments).
This widely examined theory suggests five broad dimensions used by some psychologists to describe the human personality and psyche. The five factors have been defined as openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism, often listed under the acronyms “OCEAN”.

Dimension of Personality

  1. Openness to experience
  2. Conscientiousness
  3. Extraversion
  4. Agreeableness
  5. Neuroticism


  1. Inventive, Curious
  2. Efficient, Organised
  3. Outgoing,  Energetic
  4. Friendly, Compassionate
  5. Sensitive, Nervous

Low level

  1. Cautious, Conservative
  2. Easy going, Careless
  3. Solitary Reserved
  4. Competitive, Outspoken
  5. Secure, Confident

These five factors are assumed to represent the basic structure behind all personality traits.

  • They were defined and described by several different researchers during multiple periods of research.
  • Employees are sometimes tested on the Big Five personality traits in collaborative situations to determine what strong personality traits they can add to a group dynamic.
  • Businesses need to understand their people as well as their operations and processes.
  • Understanding the personality components that drive employee behavior is a very useful informational data point for management.


1. Openness to experience: (inventive/curious vs. consistent/cautious):

  • Openness to experience describes a person’s degree of intellectual curiosity, creativity, appreciation for art, emotion, adventure, unusual ideas, curiosity, and variety of experience.
  • It is also described as the extent to which a person is imaginative or independent, and depicts a personal preference for a variety of activities
    over a strict routine.
  • High openness can be perceived as unpredictability or lack of focus.
  • Moreover, individuals with high openness are said to pursue self-actualization specifically by seeking out intense, euphoric experiences, such as skydiving, living abroad, gambling, etc.
  • Conversely, those with low openness seek to gain fulfillment through perseverance and are characterized as pragmatic and data-driven—sometimes even perceived to be dogmatic and closed-minded.
  • Some disagreement remains about how to interpret and contextualize the openness factor.

2. Conscientiousness (efficient/organized vs. easy-going/careless):

  • Conscientiousness is a tendency to show self-discipline, act dutifully, and aim for achievement.
  • Conscientiousness also refers to planning, organization, and dependability.
  • High conscientiousness is often perceived as stubbornness and obsession.
  • Low conscientiousness is associated with flexibility and spontaneity, but can also appear as sloppiness and lack of reliability.

3. Extraversion: (outgoing/energetic vs. solitary/reserved):

  • Extraversion describes energy, positive emotions, assertiveness, sociability, talkativeness, and the tendency to seek stimulation in the company of others.
  • High extraversion is often perceived as attention-seeking, and domineering.
  • Low extraversion causes a reserved, reflective personality, which can be perceived as aloof or self-absorbed.

4. Agreeableness: (friendly/compassionate vs. analytical/detached):

  • Agreeableness is a tendency to be compassionate and cooperative rather than suspicious and antagonistic towards others.
  • It is also a measure of one’s trusting and helpful nature, and whether a person is generally well-tempered or not.
  • High agreeableness is often seen as naive or submissive.
  • Low agreeableness personalities are often competitive or challenging people, which can be seen as argumentative or untrustworthy.

5. Neuroticism: (sensitive/nervous vs. Secure/confident).

  • Neuroticism is a tendency to experience unpleasant emotions easily, such as anger, anxiety, depression, and vulnerability.
  • Neuroticism also refers to the degree of emotional stability and impulse control and is sometimes referred to by its low pole, “emotional stability”.
  • A high need for stability manifests as a stable and calm personality but can be seen as uninspiring and unconcerned.
  • A low need for stability causes a reactive and excitable personality, often very dynamic individuals, but they can be perceived as unstable or insecure.


  • Personality development includes activities that improve awareness and identity, develop talents and potential, build human capital and facilitate employability, enhance the quality of life and contribute to the realization of dreams and aspirations.
  • When personal development takes place in the context of institutions, it refers to the methods, programs, tools, techniques, and assessment systems that support human development at the individual level in organizations.
  • Personality development includes activities that develop talents, improve awareness, enhance potential, and look to improve the quality of life. It involves formal and informal activities that put people in the role of leaders, guides, teachers, and managers for helping them realize their full potential.

Hence, it can be concluded that the process of improving or transforming the personality is called personality development

  4. A Manifestation Is A Tool For Personal Growth

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