Conditions List of 33 Critical Illness
TOC Table of Content
4. What is primary arterial hypertension?
12. Bleeding Disorders
20. Causes of Heart Failure
23. The most common cause of CAD is arteriosclerosis, which is sometimes called “hardening of the arteries,” a condition in which cholesterol and fatty deposits called plaque build up in the arteries.
31. Less Common Causes
36. Our Approach to Heart Failure
Conditions List of 33 Critical Illness
- End-stage lung disease occurs when your lungs are unable to adequately remove carbon dioxide or supply your body with the oxygen it needs.
- End-stage lung disease can be caused by a variety of diseases including Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or emphysema.
- Scarring of the lungs (pulmonary fibrosis)
Primary Pulmonary Hypertension
- Primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH) is high blood pressure in the lungs.
- It’s a rare lung disorder in which the blood vessels in the lungs narrow and the pressure in the pulmonary artery rises far above normal levels.
What is primary arterial hypertension?
- Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), formerly known as primary pulmonary hypertension, is a rare type of high blood pressure.
- PAH affects the pulmonary arteries and capillaries.
- These blood vessels carry blood from the lower right chamber of your heart (right ventricle) into your lungs.
- As the pressure in the pulmonary blood vessels builds up, the heart must work harder to pump blood to the lungs.
- Over time, this weakens the heart muscle. Eventually, it can lead to heart failure and death.
- There’s no cure yet for PAH, but treatment options are available.
- Treatment may help relieve your symptoms, lower your chance of complications, and prolong your life.
Symptoms of pulmonary arterial hypertension
- In the early stages of PAH, you might not have any noticeable symptoms.
- As the condition worsens, symptoms will become more noticeable.
Common symptoms include:
- Difficulty breathing
- Chest pressure
- Chest pain
- Rapid pulse
- Heart palpitations
- Bluish tint to your lips or skin
- Swelling of your ankles or legs
- Swelling with fluid inside your abdomen, particularly in the latter stages of PAH
You might find it hard to breathe during exercise or other types of physical activity. Eventually, breathing can become difficult during periods of rest, too.
Find out how to recognize symptoms of PAH.
End-stage Liver Disease
- Infections, alcohol abuse, and genetics can all lead to liver disease and damage.
- Liver failure happens when your liver can’t work well enough to perform its many vital functions, such as producing bile to help you digest food and clearing your blood of toxic substances.
- Liver failure can be a life-threatening emergency.
- It can be either acute or chronic. Acute liver failure comes on quickly, while chronic liver failure occurs gradually over time.
- Damage to your liver can accumulate through several stages.
- Each stage progressively affects your liver’s ability to function properly. Continue reading to learn more about liver failure and its different stages.
Stages of liver failure
- Inflammation. In this early stage, the liver is enlarged or inflamed.
- Fibrosis. Scar tissue begins to replace healthy tissue in the inflamed liver.
- Cirrhosis. Severe scarring has built up, making it difficult for the liver to function properly.
- End-stage liver disease (ESLD). Liver function has deteriorated to the point where the damage can’t be reversed other than with a liver transplant.
- Liver cancer. The development and multiplication of unhealthy cells in the liver can occur at any stage of liver failure, although people with cirrhosis are more at risk.
Liver Failure vs Liver Diseases
- It’s important to distinguish between liver disease and liver failure.
- Liver disease refers to any condition that causes inflammation or damage to your liver.
- Liver disease can affect the overall function of your liver.
- Liver failure is when your liver has lost some or all of its functionality.
- It can occur due to the damage that’s caused by liver disease.
Kidney Failure requiring regular dialysis ï Medullary Cystic Disease
- Chronic kidney disease. The most common form of kidney disease is chronic kidney disease. …
- Kidney stones. Kidney stones are another common kidney problem. …
- Glomerulonephritis. …
- Polycystic kidney disease. …
- Urinary tract infections.
- A rare condition in which the body stops producing enough new blood cells.
- Aplastic anemia develops as a result of bone marrow damage.
- The damage may be present at birth or occur after exposure to radiation, chemotherapy, toxic chemicals, some drugs, or infection.
- Symptoms may develop slowly or suddenly. Fatigue, frequent infections, rapid heart rate, and bleeding may occur.
- If necessary, treatment can include medication, blood transfusions, and stem-cell transplants.
People also ask
Is aplastic Anaemia curable?
Heart and Vascular
- Myocardial Infarction
- Refractory Heart Failure
- Although the death rate from coronary artery disease and other heart conditions has been declining, the number of deaths from heart failure also called congestive heart failure — is rising and is expected to balloon as the population ages.
- Heart failure doesn’t mean that the heart has failed or stopped.
- People often live healthy lives by controlling this condition, which refers to one or more chambers of the heart “failing” to keep up with the volume of blood flowing through them. Many advances in the last few decades have given doctors new tools for treating some of the underlying heart problems that can cause heart failure.
Causes of Heart Failure
Common causes of heart failure include the following:
- Damage from a prior heart attack also called a myocardial infarction, is a heart attack that occurs when an artery that supplies blood to the heart is blocked so that no oxygen reaches the heart muscle.
- When this happens, part of the heart “dies.” The medical term for the area of dead muscle is called the “infarct.”
- The remaining, healthy tissue must take over the job of pumping blood, an extra burden that may weaken the heart’s pumping ability.
Coronary artery disease (CAD)
- Like all the organs and tissues of the body, the heart needs oxygen and other nutrients carried by the blood to remain healthy.
- When the blood vessels become narrow or clogged so that not enough blood reaches the heart, the damage is done to the heart muscle, which, in turn, may affect its ability to pump blood efficiently.
The most common cause of CAD is arteriosclerosis, which is sometimes called “hardening of the arteries,” a condition in which cholesterol and fatty deposits called plaque build up in the arteries.
- CAD also may be caused by blood clots that lodge in the arteries and interfere with blood flow.
- When the heartbeat is too fast, too slow, or irregular, the heart may not be able to pump enough blood.
- Once the underlying problem causing the irregular heartbeat is treated, the symptoms of heart failure may go away before significant damage is done to the heart muscle.
Alcohol and drug abuse excessive
- use of alcohol or drugs such as cocaine and amphetamines can damage the heart.
- These substances can damage the cells of the heart or prevent them from functioning, or constrict the blood vessels of the heart, resulting in raised blood pressure and heart rate.
- These stresses can lead to heart failure or another heart disease.
- Some environmental toxins and prescriptions drugs also can contribute to the problem.
Abnormal heart valves
- That open and close to allow blood to pass between the chambers of the heart may be damaged by disease or infection.
- Sometimes, heart valve defects are congenital or present at birth.
- If the valves don’t open or close completely with each heartbeat, the heart has to pump harder to keep the blood moving.
- If the workload becomes too great, heart failure can develop.
Heart muscle disease (cardiomyopathy) or inflammation (myocarditis)
- Any damage to the heart muscle itself increases the risk of heart failure.
- Heart muscle disease or infection may be increased by birth defects, drug or alcohol abuse, bacterial or viral infections, or by other, unknown causes.
Congenital heart defects
- the heart and its chambers don’t form correctly in the developing fetus, the normal parts of the heart must make up for the defects by working harder.
- Over time, the added stress may cause healthy structures to fail.
- Diabetes tends to increase the levels of cholesterol and triglycerides unhealthy fats that contribute to coronary artery disease.
- People with diabetes also are more likely to be overweight and have high blood pressure.
- These factors must be carefully monitored and controlled because they put extra strain on the heart and can lead to heart failure, as well as to other cardiovascular diseases such as heart attack and strokes.
High blood pressure uncontrolled high blood pressure, or hypertension, doubles a person’s risk of developing heart failure.
- If the pressure created by blood flow through the vessels of the circulatory system is too high, the heart has to pump harder to keep the blood circulating. Over time, the extra burden can weaken the heart and eventually contribute to heart failure.
Less Common Causes
- Sometimes, an otherwise healthy heart may temporarily have trouble keeping up with the body’s need for oxygen and other nutrients carried by the blood because of problems unrelated to the cardiovascular system.
These problems are less common than other causes for heart failure, but it is important to monitor heart function in people who have:
- It is the job of the red blood cells to carry oxygen needed to maintain life in the body’s cells.
- If there are not enough of these cells, the heart pumps at a faster rate to circulate the smaller number of red cells quickly enough to supply the body’s oxygen needs.
- Over time, the extra burden may lead to heart damage.
- The thyroid gland affects the rate at which the body metabolizes food and other substances.
- If the thyroid is overactive, a condition called hyperthyroidism, the body works at a faster pace and the heart may be overworked as it adjusts to keep up with the increased demand for oxygen and other nutrients, and the increased rate at which waste products build-up that must be picked up by the circulating blood and carried to the kidneys, liver and elsewhere to be processed and excreted.
- Lifestyle factors associated with heart disease in general also may contribute to heart failure, including:
- High cholesterol
- Cigarette smoking
- A family history of heart failure or another heart disease
Sometimes, there is no known cause for heart failure.
Our Approach to Heart Failure
- UCSF is an internationally recognized leader in treating heart failure at all stages.
- Our program offers state-of-the-art conventional as well as experimental therapies, many of them designed right here, including lifestyle and dietary modifications, disease management, medications, electrophysiological devices, mechanical circulatory support, and heart and lung transplantation.
- Our doctors, nurses, pharmacists, dietitians, physical therapists, social workers, and palliative care specialists work together as a team to relieve each patient’s symptoms, slow disease progression, prolong survival and improve quality of life.
Patients with advanced heart failure may benefit from mechanical circulatory support therapy.
- Our physicians have experience with nearly every federally approved device, so they know how to find the right approach and device for each patient.
- In heart failure’s final stages, transplantation may be an option.
- UCSF’s award-winning heart transplant program is one of the most active and effective in the region, having performed more than 350 transplants in the last 25 years.
What are musculoskeletal disorders?
- Carpal tunnel syndrome.
- Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)
- Bone fractures.
- Systematic Lupus Erythematosus with Renal Involvement
- Myasthenia Gravis
- Good Pastures Syndrome with Lung or Renal Involvement
- A disease in which the body’s immune system attacks healthy cells.
MOST COMMON TYPES
- A chronic inflammatory disorder affecting many joints, including those in the hands and feet.
- Inflammatory disease is caused when the immune system attacks its own tissues.
- An immune reaction to eating gluten, a protein found in wheat, barley, and rye.
- An immune system disorder characterized by dry eyes and dry mouth.
- A disease in which the immune system eats away at the protective covering of nerves.
- An inflammatory disorder causes muscle pain and stiffness around the shoulders and hips.
- Inflammatory arthritis affects the spine and large joints.
Type 1 diabetes
- A chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin.
- Sudden hair loss starts with one or more circular bald patches that may overlap.
- Inflammation of the blood vessels causes changes in the blood vessel walls.
- Cancer of Specified Severity
- Third Degree Burns
- Loss of Speech
Neuro/spinal & Psychiatric Disease
- Multiple Sclerosis with persisting symptoms
- Motor Neuron Disease with permanent symptoms
- Permanent Paralysis of Limbs
- Stroke resulting in permanent symptoms
- Coma of specified severity
- Alzheimer’s Disease
- Parkinson’s Disease
- Apallic Syndrome
- Benign Brain Tumor
- Creutzfeldt – Jacob Disease
- Major Head Trauma
- Loss of Limbs
- Loss of Independent Existence
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